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Henry Gray (1821–1865). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
8. The Muscles and Fasciæ of the Lower Extremity.
a. The Muscles and Fasciæ of the Iliac Region
The muscles of the lower extremity are subdivided into groups corresponding with the different regions of the limb.
I. Muscles of the Iliac Region.
III. Muscles of the Leg.
II. Muscles of the Thigh.
IV. Muscles of the Foot.
The Muscles and Fasciæ of the Iliac Region (Fig. 430).
The Fascia Covering the Psoas and Iliacus is thin above, and becomes gradually thicker below as it approaches the inguinal ligament.
1. The Anterior Femoral Muscles (Fig. 430).
Muscles of the iliac and anterior femoral regions.
The Fossa Ovalis (saphenous opening) (Fig. 431).—At the upper and medial part of the thigh, a little below the medial end of the inguinal ligament, is a large oval-shaped aperture in the fascia lata; it transmits the great saphenous vein, and other, smaller vessels, and is termed the fossa ovalis.
The fossa ovalis.
2. The Medial Femoral Muscles
Gracilis. Adductor longus.
The Gracilis (Fig. 430) is the most superficial muscle on the medial side of the thigh. It is thin and flattened, broad above, narrow and tapering below. It arises by a thin aponeurosis from the anterior margins of the lower half of the symphysis pubis and the upper half of the pubic arch.
The Pectineus (Fig. 430) is a flat, quadrangular muscle, situated at the anterior part of the upper and medial aspect of the thigh.
The Adductor longus (Fig. 433), the most superficial of the three Adductores, is a triangular muscle, lying in the same plane as the Pectineus
The Adductor brevis (Fig. 433) is situated immediately behind the two preceding muscles.
The Adductor magnus (Fig. 433) is a large triangular muscle, situated on the medial side of the thigh.
Deep muscles of the medial femoral region.
Cross-section through the middle of the thigh. (Eycleshymer and Schoemaker.)
3. The Muscles of the Gluteal Region (Fig. 434).
Tensor fasciæ latæ.
Muscles of the gluteal and posterior femoral regions.